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Wahhabiyyah emerged when Islamic world in the 18th century collapsed owing to western colonialism. This movement was led by Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab as a seed for Islamic revivalism to rebuild Islamic world from its collapse. At that time, Islamic world experienced the worst moral degradation. The oneness of God was even contaminated with bid’ah, khurafat and mysticism.
Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab in collaboration with Najd ruler, Prince Muhammad bin Sa’ud (ruling from 1139 to 1179) preached Islam among Najd community. This is the first time in pre-historic era the seed for Islamic fundamentalism was spread out. This seed for fundamentalism was used by Abdul Wahhab to establish Hakimiyyatullah among other Arabic clans. This utilization brought Wahhabiyyah to be the only mainstream thought of Islamic reform among Ahlu al-Sunnah wa al-Jamaa’ah. Wahhabisme became popular after Saudi regime ruled Arabic territory covering Najd, Makkah, Madinah, Najf and some Iraqi provinces. Khalifah Turki Utsmani called this movement Khawarij Haza al-‘Asr.
- Calling for purifying the meaning of tauhid by asserting Muslim to trace back the meaning of tauhid as interpreted by Muslim in the early Islamic era.
- Reviving the duty of ijtihad and jihad fi sabilillah.
- Calling for the unity of Muslim to undertake visible steps toward Islamic revivalism after the fall of Usmaniyyah dynasty.
C. Work Geography
- Spreading over Middle East countries in particular Saudi Arabia along with the expansion of Saudi Arabia in 1187 H (Islamic calendar).
- Spreading over Arab peninsula coincided with the development of Arabic government. This movement was known in Makkah by 1219 and Madinah by 1220.
- Spreading outside Arab peninsula when it was brought by pilgrimage delegation which then became an embryo for other Islamic reformation such as Mahdiyah movement, Sanusiyyah, Pan Islamisme Afghani-Abduh and others.
- Becoming reference for internationally Islamic radicalism and militarism.
- Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab al-Masyrafi al-Tamimi al-Najdi (1115 – 1206 H / 1703 – 1791 M)
- Su’ud bin Abdul Aziz bin Muhammad bin Su’ud
- Husein bin Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab
- Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab (1165 – 1242 H). He became Qodhi Dir’iyah in the era of King Su’ud bin Abdul Aziz bin Muhammad Su’ud. He was very decisive, experienced and cautious. He died in Egypt.
- Ibrahim bin Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab
- Abdur Rahman bin Khumais, great Muslim leader of palace mosque al-Su’ud at Dirtiyah and Qodhi in the era of Abdul Aziz and his son, Su’ud.
- Husein bin Ghannam, the author of Raudhat al-Afkar.”
- Syekh Abdul Lathif bin Abdur Rahman bin Hasan bin Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab, the author of Ta’sisu al-Taqdis Fi al-raddi ‘Ala Dawud bin Jirjis and Misbah al-Dzolam Fi al-Raddi ‘Ala al-Syekh al-Imam.
- Sulaiman bin Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab (1193 – 1285 H), the author of Taisir al-Aziz al-Hamid Fi Syarhi Kitab al-Tauhid
- Abdul Rahman bin Hasan bin Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab (1193 – 1285 H), the author of al-Rad al-Nafis ‘Ala Syubuhat Dawud bin Jirjis
- Syekh Muhammad bin Ibrahim, a grandchild who became mufti in the era of King Faishol
- Syekh Abdul Aziz bin Baz, a general mufti who became a chair of Research Center of Fatwa and Da’wah of SaudiArabia Kingdom.
E. Characteristics of Movement and Doctrine
- Calling for widening ijtihad that has been long time tightly shut since the fall of Baghdad in 656 H. Its ijtihad started from literal-scriptural and anti-cultural.
- Back to Qur’an and Hadits and resistant to any norms and values that do not reflect any verses in Qur’an and Hadits.
- Being known as puritan movement which prohibits Muslims to build cemetery, covering it and lighting it. It also prohibits Muslim from any practice associated with khurafat and bid’ah including Sufism and mysticism introduced into Islamic worship which never existed before.
- Utilizing politics as a means to establish pure Islamic teaching by making Islam as the basis for interpretation of anything.
- Criticizing Islamic mysticism which to a great extent worshipped its influential figure.
- Identifying Arab and Islam as integrated entity.
As a pioneer of Islamic revivalism in Egypt, the emergence of al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun was anteceded by modernization in Egypt brought by British colonialism. In this regard, Suez Canal located on Ismailiyyah territory was significant enough for British economy and politics which then led British to expand its colonial territory.
Initially Hasan al-Banna, the founder of this movement, was once known as Islamic preacher. He then expanded this movement to political organization which was widely known in Middle East. In a response to Palestinian revolution 1939, al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun mobilized its member to form intelligent apparatus widely known as al-Tanzim al-Khas or al-Tanzim al-Sirri in 1940’s. This apparatus had bothered religious and state dialogue in Eqypt for a long time.
When al-Banna moved to Kairo in 1932 to teach at madrasah, the central base of al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun was also moved to this city. Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun youth united at al-Tanzim al-Khas commanded by al-Banna was the main provider for mujahidin in Arab-Israel war in 1948. In the same year, the confrontation between al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun and Egyptian government was intensified. This can be identified from any chaos behind which al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun was accussed of intellectual actor. On November 8,1948 Prime Minister of Egypt, Mahmud Fahmi al-Nuqrasyi, demolished this organization. The government then took all the organization property and blacklisted all the leaders. A month after the demolish of the organization, the Prime Minister was murdered misteriously. The government of Egypt accused al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun behind the assassination scene. However, a little can be proved about that accusation since the government only pointed to Prime Minister supporters who on the day of funeral marched down along the street and yielded al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun to be responsible for the death of the Prime Minister.
The conflict between Egypt and British was getting worse on October 1951. Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun undertook psywar against England colonial particularly on Suez Cannal. On July 1952 Egyptian army led by Muhammad Najib in corporation with al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun carried out July revolution. Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun then chose not be with the government in carrying out the revolution owing to differences in understanding and method of carrying the revolution. The differences aroused intensified conflict between the government and al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun which led the government to catch a large number of leaders and members of al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun were put in jail. Based on the government assertion that al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun tried to assassinate Egyptian President, Gamal Abdul Nasser, on Mansyiyyah field, Iskandariyah, the government caught another six members of al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun and shot them to death. They were Abdul Qodir Audah, Muhammad Farghali, Yusuf Thal’at, Handawi Duwair, Ibrahim Tayyib and Muhammad Abudllatif.
In 1957 Nasser experienced second assassination trial by al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun. The same scenario recurred in 1965. The assassination led the government took serious action by putting a large number of al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun into jail and tortured the inmates, three of which were brought to the court and resulted in dead penalty. They were Sayyid Qutb, Yusuf Hawasi and Abdul Fattah Isma’il. Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun assumed its action sneakily since then up to the death of Gamal Abdul Nasser on September 28, 1970. A new prime minister, Anwar Sadat took a cooperative approach to al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun by gradually releasing some inmates from 1971 to 1976.
Under its new charismatic leader, Umar Tilmisani (1904 – 1986), al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun demanded its organizational rights after being frozen by Nasser. Tilmisani succeeded in fighting for organizational rights since he was cooperative enough with the government in running the organization. He called his organizational members for “act wisely and avoid radicalism and extremism.”
1. Urging Muslim to go back to Qur’an and Hadits.
2. Demanding the application of syari’at Islam.
3. Resisting secularization and westernization in Arab and Islamic world.
C. Work Geography
1. It starts in Ismailiyyah then moves to Kairo.
2. From Kairo, it then spreads over countryside and Egypt downtown.
3. In 1940 al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun in Egypt had 3000 branches with a large number of members.
4. Its members were sent to Middle East countries.
1. Hassan al-Banna
2. Abdul Qadir Audah, Muhammad Farghali, Yusuf Thal’at, Handawi Duwair, Ibrahim Thayyib and Muhammad Abdullatif
3. Sayyid Qutb, Yusuf Hawasi and Abdul Fattah Isma’il
5. Umar Tilmisani
6. Muhammad Hamid Abu Nashr
Figure outside Egypt:
1. Syaikh Muhammad Mahmud Shawwaf, the founder and supervisor of al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun in Irak
2. Dr. Musthafa al-Shiba’I, first general supervisor of al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun in Suriah
3. Syaikh Abdullatif Abu Qurrah, first leader of al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun in Jordan
4. Ustadz Muhammad Abdurrahman Khalifah, executive director of al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun in Jordan.
5. Abdullah Azzam, chair of al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun in Palestine.
E. Characteristics of Movement and Doctrine
1. Attempting to achieve the glory of Islamic world which was internationally recognizable by freeing Islamic world from colonialization and imperialism and uniting Islamic world for the sake of al-Khilafah al-Islamiyah.
2. Asserting the supremacy of Islam by resisting west.
3. Resisting modern jahiliyyah (stupidity) pertaining to theology, (western) culture and politics, i.e., Marxism, Capitalism, Nationalism and Liberalism.
4. Demanding radical change by means of confrontation which was justifiable in terms of Islamic language, i.e., al-Khilafah al-Islamiyah, jihad, iqamah al-daulah, iqamah al-dien, al-hakimiyah and so forth.
5. Identifying itself as a political movement which tried to unite its force by uniting worldly Muslim in fighting against western common enemy.
Hizbut Tahrir is an Islamic political party whose preaching and teaching are based on the obligatory to regain al-Khilafah Islamiyah by focusing on fikrah (idea) as an essential element to change. It had launched controversial ijtihad which invited criticism by ulama’.
This party was founded by Syaikh Taqiyuddin Nabhani (1909 – 1979 M). In 1948 he along with his family left his village for Beirut. He was then appointed as a staff at high court of Bait al-Maqdis in Jerusalem. When he chaired the party, he published a lot of books and brochures which became a main resource for his party. Among the countries he ever lived in are Jordan, Syria and Lebanon. He was died in Beirut.
After the death of Nabhani, Hizbut Tahrir was chaired by Abdul Qadir Zallum. On October 19, 1378 Hizbut Tahrir had its own branch office in Lebanon as a result of proposal submitted by Ali Fachruddin, Thalal Bisath, Musthafa Nahhas, Musthafa Shalih and Manshur Haidar.
Hizbut Tahrir’s branch office in Jordan was chaired by Syaikh Ahmad Daur. In 1969 he was caught after his unsuccessful coup d’etat. He got dead penalty but removed in the end. In August 1984 32 Hizbut Tahrir activists were brought to court after they were accused of attempting coup d’ etat. Among the leaders of the coup d’etat were Ir. Abdul Ghani Jabbir Sulaiman, Dr. Shalahuddin Muhammad Hassan (both living in Austria), a Palestinian origin whose profession was doctor of electro known as Abu Lihyah (he is living in Germany now) and ‘Alauddin Abdul Wahhab Hajjaj (student of Kairo University).
1. Regaining al-Khilafah al-Islamiyah by focusing on fikrah (idea) by means of Islamic political party.
2. Integrating Islam and politics and making them widely knowledgeable by means of publishing books and brochure.
3. Exposing controversial fatwa on Islamic law which sounds unconventional to tradition.
C. Work Geography
1. Initially this Islamic political party began in Jordan, Syria and Lebanon.
2. It then spreads over various Islamic countries and even to some European countries particularly Austria and Germany.
3. It sounds internationally.
1. Syeikh Taqiyuddin Nabhani
2. Abdul Qadir Zallum
3. Syaikh Ahmad Da’ur
4. Ali Fakhruddin, Thalal Bisath, Musthafa Nahhas, Musthafa Shalih and Manshur Haidar
5. Ir. Abdul Ghani Jabbir Sulaiman, Dr. Shalahuddin Muhammad Hassan and ‘Alauddin Abdul Wahhab Hajjaj
6. Abdurrahman Maliki from Syria
C. Characteristics of Movement and Doctrines
1. Hizbut Tahrir puts emphasis on implementing Islamic life by means of applying Islamic country in Arabic countries and then other Islamic countries.
2. It also stresses culture (tsaqofah) and makes it as a basis for establishing Muslim personality.
3. It takes three subsequent steps to completely rule the country, i.e., (1) conflict of thought, (2) revolution of thought through which individuals are interacting each other by means of tsaqofi siyasi and the last (3) people power.
4. It has concern on ideological and political aspects by undermining educational and spiritual ones. Coup d’etat is its principal goal.
5. It resents any system thought it may involve in one system it believes to be truth.
HIZBUT TAHRIR INDONESIA
Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI) literary means freedom party. This organization is indeed an international organization established in Jerusalem in 1953 by a Palestinian ulama, Taqiyudin al-Nabhani. The main base camps of Hizbut Tahrir (HT) are in Jordan and Lebanon. There is no clear account on when Hizbut Tahrir was established in Indonesia, but the ideology of HT had already existed in Indonesia since Taqiyudin al-Nabhani visited Indonesia in 1972.
After the New Order Indonesia ended in 1998, HTI showed its original nature, i,e. ambitiously fighting for the establishment of Islamic system of state to substitute the secular one in Indonesia. Ideologically, HTI adopts Pan-Islamism, which has purpose to resurrect Islamic supreme of the middle century in the form of establishing Islamic State internationally, al-Khilafah al-Islamiyah. The ambition of HTI to maintain Islamic system is reflected in its programs. The functionaries of HTI often undertakes public forum to promote Islamic syari’ah. Beside the public forums, which are usually attended by many participants, HTI also publishes books on many aspects of Islamic syari’ah or al-khilafah al-Islamiyah such as economic system, government, foreign relation, the way to overcome poverty, the flag of al-khilafah al-Islamiyah, etc. Through its biweekly bulletin, Al-Islam, and monthly journal, Al-Wa’ie, HTI tries to give response to emerging issues and critically analyses them with the orientation of showing the failure of secular system and highlighting the superiority of Islamic system as an alternative solution.
The functionaries of HTI believe that implementation of Islamic system is the sole way to save the condition of Muslims, who are left behind and mistreated. They also ensure that the implementation of Islamic system is not only for the sake of Muslims’ interest, but also for non-Muslims’ interests. According to Islamic syari’ah, the rights of non-Muslims will be treated justly in Islamic state. The enforcement of Islamic law is the essential part of the Islamicity of a person and essential need of human being at large.
For HTI, implementing Islamic syari’ah completely is the manifestation of faith, the logical consequence of obligation to perform Islam completely (kaafah), and the realization of obligation to choose leader, khalifah. The absence of khalifah, for HTI, is the condition, which obliges Muslim to call for a ‘war’ against the secular government. Maintaining al-khilafah al-Islamiyah is a transformation of Dar al-Kufr (the state of infidels) towards Dar al-Islam (Islamic state). The establishment of al-khilafah al-Islamiyah is a vital issue for Muslims because the absence of integrated leadership of Muslims in the world has made Muslims left behind and become divided into separated countries under the leadership and control of infidel countries.
HTI believes that the implementation of Islamic syari’ah can only be carried out by means of establishing khilafah Islamiyah. Islamic law, especially that related to public affairs such as hudud, jinayat, and ta’zir, according to HTI, can only be undertaken by khalifah, not individual person, group, president or prime minister.
According to HTI, implementation of Islamic law in secular system is problematic for it will result in compromising and taking some Islamic laws out and even putting the important issues such as economy and politics in non-Islamic system. This way is considered to be useless, like building a mosque on a sinful place. HTI exemplifies the failure of Islamic movements because they struggle for the implementation of Islamic law through participation in the secular system. Even though PAS in Malaysia wins the election in Kelantan, and successfully implements Islamic law there, essential Islamic law, such as hudud, and qishash is forbidden to be implemented by the federal government of Malaysia. In south Sudan, implementation of Islamic law is rejected by people there, who are mostly Christians and Animists. This forces the parliament of Sudan to ratify hundreds of regulations contradictory to Islamic law for compromising. The failure of participation in secular system is also shown by Islamic parties. In Malaysia, for example, PAS loses in competition with UMNO. Al-Ikhwan and Islamic Action Front party in Jordan also failed. Al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimun in Egypt lead by Hasan al-Bana failed to get position in parliament in 1945, and Islamic parties in Indonesia also failed to compete with the nationalist parties.
Although there are some Islamic parties won, such as Refah party in Turkey and FIS in Aljazair, their winning were annulled by the secular regime under the support of the United State of America. The establishment of al-khilafah al-Islamiyah, for HTI, is also important because Muslim countries such as Saudi Arabia, Iran, Sudan, Pakistan, Yemen, Malaysia, etc. have been proven unable to implement Islamic law completely, especially that related to trans-nationalism of Islamic country. The division of Islamic countries has resulted in the weakness of the Muslim world. Conversely, it makes infidel countries stronger in gripping the Muslim countries.
There are three phases through which HTI carries out its activities to achieve its goal, i.e. establishment of al-khilafah al-Islamiyah. These phases are firstly, promoting the methodology of HTI, secondly, conducting interaction with society to socialize the ideas of HTI and uproot the secular system, and thirdly, taking over the power (authority).
1. To implement Islamic syari’ah and the system of al-khilafah al-Islamiyah in Indonesia.
2. To promote Islamic syari’ah by means of public forums and publishing books on various aspects of Islamic law or al-khilafah al-Islamiyah, including economic system, government, foreign relations, the way to overcome poverty, the flag in al-khilafah al-Islamiyah, etc.
C. Work Geography
1. Ismail Yusanto (Jakarta)
2. Sidiq al-Jawi (Yogyakarta)
3. Harry Moekty (West Java)
E. Characteristics of Movement and Doctrine
1. HTI is anti-Secularism and Capitalism because they are considered to be the main sources of the emergence of anti-Islam discourse.
2. HTI views that the emergence of inter-civilization clashes between Islam and the West, particularly America is basically factual and unavoidable.
3. HTI has imagination of the victory of Islam by means of struggling for the implementation of Islamic syari’ah in Indonesia.
4. The strategy of HTI’s movement tends to adopt the movement methodology of thought and politics.
5. HTI often utilizes religious texts as theological basis for violence in Islam.
The emergence of Darul Islam (DI) as political movement in Indonesia was inseparable from social political constellation since early Indonesian independence. Backed up by TII (Indonesian Islamic Army), DII tended to change Indonesian political system based on state ideology of Pancasila with Islamic one. In order to achieve its political goal it made use of Islam. DI argued that Islam and politics were integrated entity, thus, could not be separated one from another. For DI, Islam demanded to form Islamic state. On August 7, 1949 coincided with Islamic calendar Syawal 12, 1368 Sekarmaji Marijan Kartosuwiryo declared the emergence of Indonesia Islamic state or al-Daulah al-Islamiyah at Cupu Mountain, Tasikmalaya, West Java.
The fight for Indonesian Islamic state as proclaimed by DI was preceded by the situation through which the supreme command launched announcement that the country was on crucial war condition and thus it needed to apply Islamic law on war. The exacerbating war condition at least could be seen from the fact that the Republic fell into the clutches of colonial government which led into moving the central government from Jakarta to Yogyakarta. At the same time, many of Indonesian freedom fighters were caught. This political condition assessed by DI was utilized to proclaim the need of having Indonesian Islamic state.
Based on announcement on December 20, 1948 (coincided with Islamic calendar Shafar 19, 1368), DI/TII urged Indonesian Muslims to totally joint holy war against Holland colonial. That announcement was as follows: (1) Urging Indonesian Muslim joint holy war to eradicate any imperialism and colonialism on the earth planet, and (2) Insisting on Indonesian Islamic Army (TII) take lead in the holy war and protect ordinary people until Islamic revolution reached its success on establishing Indonesian Islamic state.
Unlike PRRI/Permesta insurgent which was too weak to defend against Indonesian army, DI/TII was so strong in facing the Indonesian army. This is because, unlike PRRI/Permesta, DI/TII was a kind of people movement which was nationally backed up the people of West Java, Aceh, South Sulawesi, South Kalimantan and Central Java. In order to win people sentiment nationally it localized regional issues and touched much bigger national ones by exposing Islamic solidarity (Ukhuwah Islamiyyah). This solidarity was in fact so solid that it could face any external and internal constraints impeding its insurgent. As time went by, however, people support gradually decreased for which DI/TII accused people of betrayal.
- Establishing Indonesian Islamic state by applying syari’at Islam (Islamic law) for Muslim.
- Having Islam as a basis and constitution for Indonesian Islamic state.
C. Work Geography
- Sekarmaji Marijan Kartosuwiryo
- Kahar Muzakkar
- Daud Beraureuh
- Agus Abdullah
- Ibnu Hajar
- Amir Fatah
- Ateng Djaelani
- Sanoesi Partawidjaja
- K.H. Gazali Tusi Thoha Arsjad
- R. Oni
- Adah Djaelani Tirtapraja
- Tahmid Rachmad (Putra Kartosuwiryo)
The historical root of the emergence of Al-Jama’ah Al-Islamiyah (JI) as an organization of Islamic radical movement in Southeast Asia can be traced back through its two lines, i.e. Islamic radical movement developed in Afghanistan and splinter group of DI/TII movement which existed in the era of Old Order Indonesia. JI is said to have networking with Afghanistan for operators and activists of JI are generally mujahid (defender of the faith) from Afghanistan. Whereas, JI is said to have relation to DI/TII since Abdullah Sungkar and Abu Bakar Ba’asyir, who are often mentioned as the founding fathers of JI, were both the splinter group of DI/TII who escaped to Malaysia to avoid capture by the New Order regime.
If traced further, JI is, in fact, an organization of rebelling ideology with the purpose of building an Islamic system of leadership (khalifah) “naturally”. JI underscores rebellion towards regimes in Southeast Asia countries which are considered not to be Islamic, and are henchmen of the west, especially the USA. The development of JI started and centered in Malaysia, and then developed and entered Indonesia, Singapore, and the Philippines. Malaysia was chosen as the center for JI movement because of its strategic geographical site which is situated in Malaka straits. Moreover, Malaysia is a Muslim country and is viewed to offer a better future of life both from the perspective of work field and the development of Islamic science.
There are some documents related to Al-Jama’ah al-Islamiyah organization. Firstly, a document well known as General Guide of Struggle for Al-Jamaah al-Islamiyah, which is often called PUPJI (Pedoman Umum Perjuangan Al-Jamaah Al-Islamiyah). This document was issued by Majlis Qiyadah Markaziyah Al-Jamaah Al-Islamiyah or the Central Office of JI. The document dated May 30, 1996 is the pillar of Al-Jamaah Al-Islamiyah organization, and functions as the rule of game of all activities and policy mechanism. Besides, this document constitutes the “Guideline of Struggle” by which all members of JI abide. PUPJI is the fundamental basis of the organization, which generally describes a systematic steps of the jamaah by integrating the principle values and operational steps which are conducted in a careful, directed, and systematic manner. In this document are mentioned some general guides of struggle, such as Ushulul Manhaj Al-Harakiy Li Iqomatid Dien (ten principles arranged in one unity on which all programs of the JI are based), Al-Manhaj al-Harakiy Li-Iqomatid Dien (the programs based on Ushulul Manhaj Al-Harakiy Li Iqomatid Dien, and arranged in a systematic phases), Al-Manhaj Al-Amaliy (general operational guide), and An-Nidhomul Asasiy (a set of rules arranged for the purpose of making organization orderly).
From the first document, it can be inferred that JI, by a comprehensive and complete (kaffah) understanding on Islam, tries to collect, to get support, and to build the force for the sake of izzul Islam wal-Muslimin, that is the establishment of Khilafah ala Minhajin Nubuwah, and the implementation of Allah’s Rules (syari’at) on the globe. Whereas, for the purpose of realizing its ideal to establish the khilafah, JI steps forward through some phases. The first phase is preparation for upholding daulah (state). This phase consists of Takwinul Jama’ah (efforts to form a community which can lead to establishing daulah and to upholding Al-Khilafah Al-Islamiyah), Qiyadah Rasyidah (establishing sincere leadership), Qa’idah Shalabah (forming a solid armed force, like Kopassus and Paskhas in Indonesia, and the Guard of Republic in Iraq during Saddam Hussein), conducting Tandhim Sirri (a secrete organization which plays an important role in the operation of the movement and has to coordinate with the intelligent board of Al-Jamaah Al-Islamiyah given the name Al-Amnu wal Istikhbaraat), Iman (faith) Building, as-sam’u wath thaatu (building a comprehensive force to facilitate the establishment of Daulah Islamiyah), Amar ma’ruf nahi munkar, and Hisbah.
The second phase is Takwinul Quwah. In this phase, JI develops a comprehensive force to facilitate the establishment of Daulah Islamiyah. In practice, JI moves towards strengthening educational field, da’wah, developing hijrah, Tajnid (military training as the main force), developing qaidah aminah (a peaceful area to be a base camp of the movement), developing territory, conducting training program, and tamwil (financing the operation of Al-Jamaah Al-Islamiyah. In this respect, the method and technique to generate financial support become priority), jasus (intelligent operation and espionage tansiq bainal jamaah (conducting alliance with other Muslim community who have the same vision and mission). For preparation, JI undertakes istikhdamul quwwah which consists of two activities: da’wah (indzar) and jihad musallah (jihad with armed force as a solution to establishing Khilafah).
The next phase is establishing state which comprises Takwinud Daulah. This phase focuses on organizing or managing a state, Tatsbitud Daulah (strengthening state construction), and Tansiq baina Duwal (coordination and alliance between Islamic countries. After the phases mentioned above have been undertaken and struggled for maximally, JI claims that Al-Khilafah Al- Islamiyah can be established.
Secondly, the document entitled Fiqhul Jihad (Islamic law on war). This document has the similar format with the module of lecturing consisted of Juridical and technical aspects of Jihad (war) which is followed by its phases. This document appears without the name of author and date of issuance.
Thirdly, a complete document entitled “Laporan Perkembangan Da’wah wal Irsyad Wakalah Jawa Wustha” (the Report on Da’wah and Guidance of Representative of Central Java) period of Rabi’ul Awal 1420 H/ June 1999. The report consists of socialization strategy of ideological messages of Al-Jamaah Al-Islamiyah in Central Java and patterns by which JI makes foundations as the “cover” of its movement.
Fourthly, document on report and cost proposal of training sent by Qoid (commander) of Mantiqi (zone) III / Commander of Hidaibiyah Region to Amir (commander in chief) of Al-Jamaah Al-Islamiyah with a delivery letter numbered: A/03/SIII/06/1420.
Fifthly, document on the Plan of Territorial Development System. The Document annotated “sisbinter” on the left bottom of each page is also undated.
Sixthly, document consisting of the result of military training evaluation conducted by Tajnid Am (TA) Yarmuk followed by 13 participants with main matters: Infantry Technique, Weapon Training, Map Reading, and Field Engineering. In this document is also mentioned the result of a restricted seminar held by JI.
Seventhly, report document of Tajnid Am Yarmuk of Daurah (group) I sent by region Commander to Commander of zone II. The document was sent under the delivery letter numbered: A.19/03/20, and enclosed 11 attachments.
Eighthly, document comprising techniques of making bomb with materials like C4, RDX, etc. This document is a part of Field Engineering mastery.
Ninthly, a document considered as a diary of Umar Al-Faruk, which consists of hand-writing notes mostly in Arabic. This diary also comprises the concept of an Arabic letter concerning the presence of Al-Faruk in Indonesia and would be sent to someone.
From the nine documents mentioned above, it can be inferred that Al-Jamaah Al-Islamiyah which was eager, from 1999 to 2000, to recruit many members to support its operation, in fact, emerged not to develop Islamic discourse accommodating the universal principles of Islam, but to develop itself become an organization with ideological-politic orientation. This orientation is shown in some political struggles mentioned in Nidhom Asasi upon which the members of JI agreed. From the Nidhom Asasi. it can be concluded as follows; Firstly, Although Al-Jamaah Al-Islamiyah is an internationally established organization, in reality it is a clandestine underground organization. This is proven by the fact that the location of its Central Office is not clearly mentioned, for it only mentioned a place with certain requirements.
Secondly, Al-Jamaah Al-Islamiyah has an ideal goal, i.e. realizing al-Khilafah al-Islamiyah on the globe in accordance with the Prophet’s Guide by means of da’wah ended with jihad fi sabilillah in spite of having to use armed force and risking the life.
Thirdly, theological conviction of Al- Jamaah Al-Islamiyah is only based on the Quran and Hadith under the understanding of the Salaf ulama. The JI members disagree with Shiites, Mu’tazilah, and Khawarij. They also argue against the ritual model of Sufism or tarikat, because, according to them, such a kind of model should be eliminated. This pattern of understanding is similar to the thinking method of the Wahhabism.The wahhabism is the sponsor for the crisis in Afghanistan by creating Taliban method, which is intolerant towards local culture values, and further Taliban claims the heaven for their group only.
Fourthly, the theology of alliance or tansiq bain al-Jamaah is a legalized thing according to Nidham Asasi under certain requirements and with structural permit from the top leadership. Alliance with other movements having the same goal constitutes a synergetic alliance to accelerate the realization of Al-Khilafah Al-Islamiyah, which has to be preceded by developing Daulah Islamiyah as an introductory component to the realization of Al-Khilafah Al-Islamiyah on the globe.
Fifthly, Even though Al-Khilafah Al-Islamiyah is a glory program of Al- Jamaah Al-Islamiyah, there is no adequate explanation on the requirements and working techniques of Al-Khilafah Al-Islamiyah. Khilafah ala Minhaj an-Nubuwwah perceived by JI in such a way that Muslim leader must be from Quraish tribe is political in nature. This conviction comes up from fundamentalist style of thinking that tends to understand Hadith (Prophetic tradition) in a literal, verbalist-scripturalist manner without considering the historical and socio-geographical facts surrounding the prophetic message.
There are some strong indications that the struggle for al-Khilafah al-Islamiyah is operationally successful in forming alliance (tansiq). This alliance has purpose to strengthen the line of movement and jihad (holy war). Al-Khilafah al-Islamiyah calls the alliance of some regional groups of mujahidin under the name Rabitatul Mujahiddin. The leader (amir) of al-Khilafah al-Islamiyah, Abu Bakar Ba’asyir, initiated this alliance in order that the militant groups can cooperate each other and share in training, logistics, weapons, financial aid, and even terrorist operation. The groups incorporated in this alliance are MILF, Rohingyas group in Myanmar, Jihad group in South Thailand, and some other groups of Islamic militants.
Rabitatul Mujahiddin had arranged meeting three times during the period of time from 1999 to 2000. The three meetings were conducted in Malaysia. Once in 2000, Rabitatul Mujahiddin decided to attack the Philippines’ interest in Indonesia. In August 2000, a bomb exploded outside the residence of the Philippines Ambassador in Jakarta killing two persons and twenty people were injured. Many papers said that Hambali was the mastermind of the bomb attack and was coordinated by Rabitatul Mujahiddin. The attack was a revenge attack towards the Philippine government which launched attack towards the Moro movement.
Other events used to categorize Al-Jamaah al-Islamiyah as a terrorist is a set of bomb attack towards churches in some cities in Indonesia one of which is the bomb in the night of Christmas in December 2000. This project is planned and coordinated by Hambali. Two members of Al-Jamaah al-Islamiyah from Singapore were involved in this operation. Both went to Johor to get a “briefing” before they came to Batam to execute bombing. In the same month, JI also executed bombing rail train in the Philippines killing 22 people. According to the Philippine police investigation, Fathurrahman Al-Ghozi was the person who was responsible for this event. Fathurrahman ever commanded members of al-Jamaah al-Islamiyah to observe the US Embassy and other targets in October 2001. Fathurrahman disclosed that the bombing activity was financed by al-Jamaah al-Islamiyah.
1. To establish Khilafah Islamiyah naturally.
2. To collect support, and build forces for the shake of izzul Islam wal Muslimin, reestablishing Khilafah ala Minhajin Nubuwwah, and implementing the law of Allah all over the world.
C. Work Geography
All over the world
1. Abdullah Sungkar
2. Abu Bakar Ba’asyir
4. Faris Hasyim
5. Ajengan Masduki
6. Nasir bin Abbas
9. And other figures.
E. Characteristics of Movement and Doctrine
1. Establishing Islamic law or Tatbiqus Syari’ah comprehensively (kafah) within the life of Muslim.
2. Fighting for the shake of establishing Islamic law comprehensively (kafah) in the context of life within the nation and state.
3. Refusing secular democracy, which is believed not to refer to the law of Allah. The leadership of the ummah has to be free from infidel leader, hypocrisy, and people who have secular view.
4. Understanding Islam by ideological-political approach, so that the relationship between Islam and politic is in an integral area.
5. The characteristic of its movement tends to be underground, but it is done professionally and even used terrorist approach.
6. Ideologically, it has similar struggle root with militant organizations such as al-Qaidah and Majlis Mujahidin.
Al-Qaidah was internationally recognized as a radically Islamic movement in 1988. Founded by Usamah bin Laden, this movement is aimed at throwing Arab regime and replacing it with Khilafah Islamiyah. As a modern movement, it has al-Amir al-‘Am (Chief Executive Officer), al-Amir al-Qaidah (board of directors), Majelis Syura al-Qaidah (board of legislatives), commission on military, commission on finance, commission on fatwa and commission on information. The CEO of al-Qaidah is held by Usamah bin Laden, while board of directors are Abu Ayyub al-Iraqi, Abu Ubaida al-Panjshiri (original name is Ali Rashidi), Abu Faraj al-Yamani, Ayman al-Zawahiri, Fadel al-Misri, Abu Burhan al-Kabir, Abu Hafez (original name is Muhammad Atef), Abu Mush’ab as-Suudi and Izzuddin as-Suudi.
Majelis Syura al-Qa’idah is a high institution which hosts 31 leaders. Of 31 important leaders are Abu Ibrahim al-Iraqi, Abu Fadel al-Makki, Syeikh Sayyid al-Misri, Qari Said al-Jazairi, Khalifah Masqot al-Omani, Saiful al-Liby, Abu Muhammad as-Suudi.
Under Majlis Syura are a number of commissions. Commission on military was led by Abu Ubaida al-Panjshiri who was drawn to death in Lake Victoria Tanzania in 1996. Abu Hafes then replaced him. He was also shot to death by US military in Kandahar. Saiful al-Adil then replaced him.
Commission of finance was chaired by Abu Fadel al-Makki and Abu Hamam as-Suudi. While commission on fatwa was collectively chaired by Ayman al-Zawahiri, Dr. Fadel al-Misiri, Abu Daraj al-Yamani, Abu Qatada and Abu Hajar. Commission on Information was chaired by Abu Mush’ab known as Abu Reuters (this name is taken from Reuters official news).
The principal members and leaders of al-Qa’idah are originated from two Islamic militant factions in Egypt, i.e., al-Jihad chaired by Ayman al-Zawahiri and al-Jama’ah al-Islamiyah chaired by Dr. Omar Fathurrahman. It is claimed that al-Qa’idah has a lot of sympathized volunteers who do not have official relation to the organization spreading over 50 countries, to name a few, British, Germany, Canada, US, Albania and Tanzania. 600 suspects identified with al-Qa’idah were already kept in jail without trial in 50 countries.
It is not surprising if Islamic militant faction in Arab and non-Arab world are associated with al-Qa’idah, for example, Armed Islamic Organization, Salafiyah Organization in Aljazair, Islamic Aden Army in Yaman, Pilar al-Anshar in Lebanon, Jama’ah Libya, Islamic Army in Kurdistan Irak, Abu Sayyaf Organization in Philippines and an-Nahdah in Tajikistan.
The key success for Usamah to manage al-Qa’idah relationship with other Arabic and non-Arabic World in Africa, Asia and Europe relies mainly on the remarkable property about US $ 200 to 300 millions inherited from his parent. A part of this he also got funding from rich people of Arab peninsula. In 1990’s Usamah bin Ladin used it property to buy weapon, house, company, farm field, airplane and hotel. It is known that Usamah bin Ladin has over 70 companies spreading over Middle East, Africa and Asia.
The main goal of al-Qa’idah is to establish Khilafah Islamiyah as a replacement for western secular system. This at least can be seen from Ayman al-Zawahiri, a chair of al-Jihad (a principal organizational branch of al-Qa’idah) who condemned al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun in Egypt for adopting secular democratic system by taking part in succeeding general election and by being members of parliament as a result of general election.
In an attempt to reach its strategic goal, al-Qa’idah has to master one Islamic country, if not, it can least influence one Islamic country. For this reason, Usamah moved from Afghanistan to Sudan in 1991 after Islamic Nationalist Front led by Hassan Turabi successfully took control over the country by means of coup d’ etate in 1989. To Usamah, Islamic Nationalist Front could at least give conducive climate for al-Qa’idah to undertake its operation in order to achieve its strategic goal. It can be inferred, however, that Sudan is too risky to be responsible for Usamah’s political interest owing to regional and international restraints.
In 1989 shortly after the collapse of Soviet Unions which is a year after al-Qa’idah was founded, Usamah went back to Saudi Arabia. He looked so radical that he wanted to organize jihad in his village right away. At the time Usamah prepared jihad organization to combat socialist government in South Yaman and was so supportive of Islamic rebellious and separatist movement in many Arab countries specifically in Egypt. He already made a good relationship with the leader of al-Jihad in Egypt, Ayman al-Zawahiri, since both were in Afghanistan.
The involvement of Usamah bin Ladin in Afghanistan conflict has given rise to the establishment of al-Irhab al-‘Alami movement and has lent him a credit as an international terrorist. The interaction among interest, ideology and culture as internationally coexisted in Afghanistan made Afghan Muslim in particular and Afghan people in general influenced and stimulated at once to liberate their country form Soviet colonial government. Yet, this liberation movement jointed by local and imported volunteer had never been preceded by making their own perceived vision and strategic plan similar. In fact they, imported and local fighters, could have similar vision and strategic plan as it happened accidentally on the basis of constructive perspective to eradicate any colonialism and imperialism.
As imported fighters coming from various backgrounds (style, mapping and cases) and countries (Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, Kuwait, Jordan, Palestine, China, Malaysia, South Thailand, Mindanao and Indonesia), they could in fact share a similar concern on fighting against “similarly common enemy” as each imported fighter faced similar enemy in his own different country. For example, Saudi Arabia contingent who exclusively held single Islamic doctrine, Wahhabism, would bring their Wahhabism into Afghanistan land.
Al-Jama’ah al-Islamiyyah led by Dr. Umar Abdurrahman, a graduate of al-Azhar University who is now still in the US jail, is a very significant organization to influence al-Qa’idah. This organization has its own philosophy, i.e., infidelizing state and society but not individual which made it distinct compared to other radical organization. For instant, compared to Jama’ah Muslimin widely known by media as Jama’ah al-takfir wa al-hijrah led by Syukri Mustafa which infidelized individual.
On February 23, 1998 Al-Jabhah al-Islamiyyah al-Alamiyyah li Jihad al-Yahud wa al-Salibiyyin [The Islamic World Front for the Struggle Against the Jews and the Crusaders] released a spectacular fatwa for all Muslims in the world. This spectacular fatwa was signed by Usamah bin Ladin, Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri as a leader of Jama’ah al-Jihad in Egypt, Abu Yasir Rifa’I Ahmad Thaha as a leader of al-Jama’ah al-Islamiyah in Egypt, Syaikh Mir Hamzah as a secretary of the Jama’at-ul Ulema-e Pakistan, Fazlur Rahman as a leader of Bangladesh Jihad Movement, a leader of Kashmir Islamic Movement and a commander from Pakistan.
The release of fatwa coincided with the arrival of a large number of Muslims over the world to Afghanistan. A leader of one delegation could convince Usamah bin Ladin to the meaning of war against the US which needed to be expanded into the US in any places in the world. That conviction was getting public admiration attending the meeting. If the method was once to fight against the US only, it was then to kill any American who already achieved a mature age for jointing the war wherever and whenever. The same situation applied for Jewish.
The conviction to kill any American reaching a mature age to joint the war was based on the assertion that the US was considered principal enemy for Muslims. Besides, the US had a very strategic plan when to fight against Muslims through which Muslims did not have enough preparation to defend. Thus, it is a must for Muslims to condemn America and fight against it at once. The conviction in turn gave a birth to agreement on confrontation to the US entitled al-Jabhah al-Islamiyyah al-‘Alamiyyah Li Jihad al-Yahud wa al-Salibiyyah [International Islamic Front Calling for murdering Jewish, Christians and Christians any where and any when.
The fatwa released obligates each Muslim to fight against and kill Americans and their allies neither civil nor military any where and any when. Each Muslim is also obliged to seize any American property any where and any when. This anti American fatwa, according to Usamah, cannot be separated from three facts where the US has purposely attempted to destroy Muslims. (1) America along with its allies has deliberately more than seven years exploited Islamic country resources including some sacred places such as Masjid al-Aqsa in Palestine and Masjid al-Haram in Mecca. The US has also spread insecurity among the residents of Arab peninsula. (2) The US along with Christians and Jewish has invaded innocent Iraq by which over million innocent people died. The US has even threatened Iraq’s bordering countries with the same action it did in Iraq. (3) The US motive to invade Iraq had religious and political interests. Politically, it gave support to Israel to even beat up severely Palestinian by distracting public opinion from taking account Israel invasion in Palestine to US invasion in Iraq.
Unlike the old “soft” fatwa which asked for expelling the US army from Saudi Arabia, the new “strong” fatwa as a result of meeting in Afghanistan asked for expelling any American from Arab and Islamic countries. So it can be said here that the impact of the new “strong” fatwa was so big compared to analogically CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear) weapon which is included in WMD (weapon mass destruction).
As time went by al-Qa’idah was getting radical. This can be seen from its Manchester document which made its admirers even courageous to carry out terrorism even when they were asked to do suicide bombing. The Manchester document consists of 12 teaching as follows:
The first phase is introduction to mission requiring urgent act. This part describes some important factors in carrying out military operation to which three important principles need to be taken into account, i.e., the commander of military organization and board of advisory, army and distinct and accurate strategy.
A military organization requires:
1) Forged documents and counterfeit currency
2) Apartments and hiding places
3) Communication means
4) Transformation means
6) Arms and ammunition
Its mission is to overthrow the godless regimes and replace them with an Islamic one. A part of this, its other missions as held strongly by al-Qa’idah are:
1) Gathering information about enemy, the land, the installations and the neighbors
2) Kidnapping enemy personnel, documents, secrets and arms
3) Assassinating enemy personnel as well as foreign tourists
4) Freeing the brothers who are captured by the enemy
5) Spreading rumors and writing statements that instigate people against the enemy
6) Blasting and destroying the places of amusement, immorality and sin; not vital target
7) Blasting and destroying the embassies and attacking vital economic centers
8) Blasting and destroying bridges leading into and out of the cities
From the above account, it can be noticed that the work of al-Qa’idah resembles the work of intelligence which requires militarily trained personnel particularly on division of spying.
The second phase is requirement for membership. This section explains requirement to become member of al-Qa’idah which are Islam, commitment to organizational ideology, mature, agree to take risk, obedient, keep information secret, healthy, patient, calm, intelligent, alert, wise, reliable, able to observe and analyze and able to act. Observing these strict requirements, it is really hard to become a member of al-Qa’idah without having a good personality and strong physic. So not many people can surely joint this organization before passing tight screening. Nevertheless it is natural to find some betrayers even within al-Qa’idah.
The third phase is about duplicating document and currency. The documents duplicated are identity card, passport and other documents supporting operation.
The forth phase is how to choose a secret place for operation. In this regard, al-Qa’idah explicitly points to 22 requirements some of which are: the apartment being rent has to be basement which is not known by others except members of al-Qa’idah carrying out operation, using alias name when renting apartment and trying to rent non-Muslim owned apartment. The apartment being rent is to be the newest one and located in downtown. Except for the places which do not have downtown and is insecure, thus it is suggested to rent house or apartment around mountains.
The fifth phase, Al-Qa’idah cites procedures of communication among the members. In this respect, Al-Qa’idah uses five ways: “1, the telephone, 2. meeting in person, 3. messenger, 4. letters, 5. some modern devices, such as facsimile and wireless”. For each category of this communication method, Al-Qa’idah determines its own way in order that enemy cannot know. When using telephone, for example, each member has to do it apart from the crowd; has to use certain code; phone number has to be memorized, not to be recorded; the voice has to be fickle and broken. In the case of meeting in-person, it can only be carried out for changing information; giving command and instruction; financing; and following up the members. As for the messenger model, the messenger has to know who will receive the message; time, condition, and momentum for delivering the message; choosing the place of meeting; passing the street where there is no inspection; and using public transportation. Finally, when using facsimile and wireless, member has to finish using it in five minutes; the topic of talk has to be the general one, so that the talk does not invite jealousy.
The sixth phase is the very secrete training, so that it is difficult to know the training materials. In this phase, it is mentioned that the place of training has to be far from public; health service during training; the place has to be suitable for training (physical exercises, shooting, and tactic); there is no one who knows the place of training except the trainees and the trainers; during the process of training, the place is safeguarded. The participants of the training have to be selected tightly; participants cannot know each other; the number of participants is restricted only for 7 –10 persons; the participants are not allowed to know the place of training; and the training plan has to be explained to the participants.
The seventh phase is weapon procurement. Four steps need to be taken into account here: (1) time before purchase, (2) time when purchase, (3) transportation to and from purchase and (4) time when restore. Members undertaking operation have to abide by each step cautiously. First step before purchase, it has to be known the store to purchase weapon is far away from police station. Second step when doing transaction, it has to be surely known a kind of weapon to purchase. The weapon is only paid when already carefully checked. The use of weapon purchased should not be told to the seller. It should not prolong the transaction when the weapon purchased is already paid and taken. Third step when transporting the weapon purchased, it has to avoid streets along which police operation is frequently taken place. It needs to know what time to transport the weapon. The car needs driving carefully to avoid any pubic jealousy. Forth step when restoring the weapon, it has to be known that the place to restore the weapon is relay safe. The place to restore the weapon has to be hidden. Weapon which easily explodes has to be separated and treated carefully. Oil the weapons and put them in plastic or wooden box.
The eighth phase is the security of members. Al-Qa’idah takes seriously in terms of securing its devoted members by mentioning tactic to safe member and leader carrying out operation. It applies army standard which is divided into three groups, i.e., (1) the overt members, (2) the covert members, (3) the commander. It is surprising to note that members undertaking operation do not share its activities with their family. Members who will carry out risky operation should not go along with their wives because the wives wearing veil will invite public attention.
The ninth phase, peace planning. In this matter peace planning means “ This is a set of coordinated, cohesive, and integrated measures that are related to a certain activity and designed to confuses and surprise the enemy, and if undercovered, to minimize the work loss as much as possible.” In this respect, members are taught to answer various questions coming up when they enter a country. In this manual, it is mentioned the way by which members enter Afghanistan and Pakistan by anticipating any questions asked in immigration office.
The tenth phase is not mentioned in this document. However, the ninth phase, if seen as a long phase, is likely to include the tenth phase. Or, “the decision makers” of this document had already selected some important things, for it is mentioned by them that this document is not expected to create new terrorists.
Whereas, the eleventh phase explains the intelligent world in open model. In this part, Al-Qa’idah elaborately discusses the strategy of infiltration into the enemy area. There is something interesting in the intelligent world of Al-Qa’idah that it is allowed to kill captive based on the case of Hunain War.
The twelfth phase is to spy enemy in a secrete model. According to this manual, there are only two kinds of spy which need secrete model: First: Information about government personnel, officers, important personalities, and all matters related to those (residence, work place, time of leaving and returning, wives and children, places visited). Second: Information about strategic building, important establishments, and military bases,”
In financial affairs, Al-Qa’idah Islamic radical movement utilizes money circulation method by adopting several ways: “First, terrorist earn funds through highly profitable crimes involving commodities ….. Second, to move assets, terrorists seek out mechanisms that enable them to conceal or launder their assets through nontransparent trade or financial transaction…..,Third, to store asseets, terrorists may use similar commodities, because they are likely to maintain value over a longer period time and are easy to buy and sell outside the formal banking.”
The activities of Al-Qa’idah which was initially triggered by the anger of Usamah toward the role of America in Saudi Arabia, was in fact under the “trap of the United State” which was preceded by green peril. By such a way, it seems to be easy to choose and to separate Islamic radical movements and conflict among them. However, it is necessary to note that Al-Qa’idah gets financial support from “Holding Company” in Saudi Arabia. It is also said that Al-Jama’ah Islamiyah got financial support from Saudi Arabia as well.
Based on a document “the Al-Qa’idah training manual”, it is explained that in a special operation from assassination, bombing, kidnapping, and so on, the most important things are:
- Boosting Islamic morale and lowering that of the enemy.
- Preparing and training new members for future tasks.
- A form of necessary punishment.
- Mocking the regime’s administration among the population.
- Removing the personalities that stand in the way of the Islamic (Da’wa) Call.
- Agitating the population regarding publicized matters.
- Rejecting compliance with and submission to the regime’s practices.
- Giving legitimacy to the Jama’a (Islamic Group).
- Spreading fear and terror through the regime’s ranks.
- Bringing new members to the organization’s ranks.
These jargons increase the courage and moral of Muslims, and stop every person who hinders Islamic Da’wah. The jargons also legitimate the movement of the Jama’ah and spread the great fear which constitutes the mission of the organization that should be carried out by the network of Al-Qa’idah.
There are some attacking tactics that constitute the method (manhaj) used by Al-Qa’idah from Assassination, Biological weapon, Bombing, Chemical weapon, Cyber-based strike, Hijacking, Hostage taking, Kidnapping, Nuclear, Radiology, Sabotage, Shooting, and Suicide bombing.
The assassination tactic is targeted toward political and military leader, or person who has a great influence. Bombing and Shooting are the techniques that quickly become popular and can make the enemy dropped. This way can also be used to kill people who inhibit Islamic da’wah. It is mentioned in the document “ Al-Qa’idah Training Manual” that assassination by means of bomb and explosion materials should leave no trace or proof of the operation. Besides, it is an effective tactic to spread terror that can make the mental force of enemy degraded. This strategy also includes the use of Biological weapon. All the strategies are allowed by Al-Qa’idah in conducting operation.
Whereas, the main target points of the terror operation of Al-Qa’idah are airports, apartments, bridges, bus and rail stations, financial institutions, chemical plants, civil planes, infrastructures, cruisers, cultural-icon buildings, electrical generators, giant companies, government offices, military base camp, nuclear reactors and its facilities, rail trains, highways, malls, and dams (energy resources).
1. Reestablishing Khilafah Islamiyah system to substitute government system imported from the West.
2. Fighting for political goal towards the realization of “al-Khilafah al-Islamiyah”, “al-Daulah al-Islamiyah” and “Tatbiq al-Syariah”.
C. Work Geography
All countries in the world
1. Usamah bin Ladin
2. Ayman al-Zawahiri
3. Abu Ghaith (Abu Ayyub Ak- Iraqi, Abu Ubaidah Al-Panjshiri)
4. Abu Hafez
5. Muhammad Mansour Jabbarah
6. Muhammad Jamal Khalifah
7. Abu Ibrahim Al-Iraqi
8. Abu Fadel Al-Makki
9. Shekh Sayyid Al-Misri
10. Qari Said Al-Jazairi
11. Khalifah Masqot Al-Omani
12. Saiful Al-Liby
13. Abu Muhammad As-Suudi
E. Characteristics of Movements and Doctrine
1. Conducting coercive action in bringing the case of “Arabist” to the area of “Islamist” or coercing the Arab-colored policies perceived as a policy that is free from Islamic nuance.
2. With the legitimacy from “Virtual Universities for Future Islamic Radicalism” in Peshawar, Al-Qa’idah issued a “Resolution of Jihad” that taught radical theological doctrines and militant actions to the voluntary Mujahidin from various Muslim countries in the war of Afghanistan.
3. Committing “Violence Actions” in the name of God’s interest. On the pretext of religion, the members of Al-Qa’idah can do anything in spite of using violence approach.
4. Fighting for political goal towards the realization of “al-Khilafah al-Islamiyah”, “al-Daulah al-Islamiyah” and “Tatbiq al-Syariah”.
MAJELIS MUJAHIDIN INDONESIA
Majelis Mujahidin Indonesia (MMI) was once called Majelis Mujahidin (MM). It was established as a result of Muslim activist meeting called Mujahidin Congress jointed by Muslim activists over Indonesia and some from foreign countries held in Yogyakarta on August 2000. The key persons in this organization are Irfan S. Awwas and Abu Bakar Ba’asyir who was accused of a spiritual leader of Jama’ah Islamiyah, al-Qaeda network in Southeast Asia. In that congress, Ba’asyir was appointed as Amirul Mujahidin and Irfan as a chair of legislative board. Both were reappointed at the second Mujahidin congress in Solo on September 2003.
Regardless of its new emergence, MMI claims that its appearance has been long waited by Indonesian Muslim who are longing for applying syari’at Islam. It asserts to be a basis for other organizations, movements and individuals having similar concerns on applying syari’at Islam in Indonesia. It maintains to have a brance over eight provinces, i.e., South Sumatra, North Sumatra, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, West Java, East Java, Bali and West Nusa Tenggara.
As a socio-religious organization, MMI is prevalently persistent in proposing to apply syari’at Islam officially and formally to replace the secular system. To support its program, it carries out various programs, for example, public forum to discuss the possibility and opportunity to apply syari’at Islam. It has already published a proposal referring to syari’at Islam as an alternative to Indonesian supreme constitution (UUD 1945) and common law (KUHP). Having published the proposal, they then send it to various state institutions in Indonesia and to internationally influential figures such as George W. Bush, Saddam Hussein and Megawati.
Most MMI figures believe that the application of syari’at Islam is the only solution to save Muslim from backwardness and oppression. They claims that the significance of applying syari’at Islam is not only for the sake of Muslim but also of other believers as it will guarantee the rights of non-Muslim. Besides, it will put the social justice into effect not only for Muslim but non-Muslim as well. The application of syari’at Islam is the essence of being Muslim, thereby, not applying it will lead Muslim be called kufur and fasiq (Q.S. 5: 44, 47). Therefore, applying it means a total submission to Allah.
Referring to Ibnu Taimiyah, an influential Islamic thinker, Ba’asyir defines worship to Allah as a total submission toward all his commands including the application of syari’at Islam as a whole. Allah will threaten those applying syari’at Islam partially by putting them in the hell and giving them difficulty in the world (Q.S. 2: 85). MMI criticizes Muslims who are against application of syari’at Islam and label them munafiq. To MMI, these kinds of Muslims tend to bring people into trouble as in Aceh and Maluku. For them, life is only two choices, i.e., “applying syari’at Islam or died as a result of jihad for applying syari’at Islam.”
The annihilation of syari’at Islam will invite Allah’s anger so that people will be in trouble, difficulty and conflict. Ba’asyir quotes Qur’an and Hadits for this reason:
Those against Prophet Muhammad will be in danger and trouble (Q.S. An-Nur: 63).
If leaders are in favor against application of Islamic law as mentioned in Qur’an, Allah will bring them trouble, difficulty and conflict (H.R. Ibn Majah).
In his pleidoi (defense) read in Indonesian court, Ba’asyir pointed out world crisis as a result of the failure of secular democracy as a sign of Allah’s anger. He said:
Secular democracy conceived as the best model in the world and to be applied in Indonesia cannot give people either individually nor socially, harmony, peace, social justice and security. On behalf of democracy, moral degradation is allowed to widely spread which in turn endangers social norms and values and causes pathological liar. Secular democracy which is not based on Islam also brings about social tenses for elite people running the country always manipulate social fact.
According to MMI, Muslims in Indonesia constitutes weak (dzimmi) majority because their rights to apply syari’at Islam is always hindered by strong minority, non-Muslim. Withdrawing Jakarta charter from UUD 1945 (Indonesian supreme constitution) that let Muslim to observe their religious duties including syari’at Islam is a kind of collective failure by Muslim.
Applying syari’at Islam is universally the need of all people. According to Irfan S. Awwas, the application of syari’at Islam will give benefits to all people because it will protect the rights of all people and give the justice for all irrespective of religious adherents and believers.
1. Fighting for Islamic system as substitution for secular one by formally and officially applying syari’at Islam in Indonesia.
2. Saving Indonesian Muslims from backwardness and oppression by applying syari’at Islam.
C. Work Geography
Indonesia as the basis for fighting in order to embody external forces to establish internationally Islamic leadership.
1. Ustadz Abu Bakar Ba’asyir
2. KH. Asep Maushul
3. KH. Bardan Kindarto
4. Drs. Muhammad Thalib
5. KH. Abdul Qadir Baraja
6. KH. Ohan Sujana
7. KH. Mawardi Noer
8. Dr. Fuad Amsyari
9. Prof. Dr. Abdurrahman Basalamah
10. Prof. Dr. Deliar Noer
11. Irfan S. Awwas
12. H. Farid Ma’ruf
E. Characteristics of Movement and Doctrine
1. Syari’at Islam needs applying formally and officially as the basis for common laws.
2. Islam and state are integrated entity which cannot be separated one from another by any reason.
3. Syari’at Islam needs applying not partially but holistically.
4. Islam needs applying nor individually or socially but in the form of state which will guarantee the application of pure aqidah and syari’at holistically.
5. If Islamic state does not come into existent, Muslim will be in trouble and difficulty, syari’at Islam will not come into effect holistically and moral degradation will steadily spread out.